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mining - Underground mining | Britannica

mining - mining - Underground mining: When any ore body lies a considerable distance below the surface, the amount of waste that has to be removed in order to uncover the ore through surface mining becomes prohibitive, and underground techniques must be considered. Counting against underground mining are the costs, which, for each ton of material mined, are much higher underground than on the ...

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Proposal of Criteria for Selection of Dewatering Methods ...

selection of certain method the multivariant study taking under con­ sideration all proposed criteria is recommended. The presented proposal is based on 35 y£ars of experience gained in about 100 surface mining operations planned and designed in the Central Research and Design Institute for Opencast Mining POLTEGOR

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Method of Selecting Opening Cut Location Using Multi ...

the selection of the opening cut location in the surface mining method. Selecting the opening cut location is a strategic mine planning matter and has a key impact on the overall processes occurring during mining operations. This choice is a complex, and …

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Surface Mining Methods and Equipment

appropriate mining method is selected based on technical, economic, and environmentally accountable considerations. The first step in selecting the most appropriate mining method is to compare the economic efficiency of extraction of the deposit by surface and underground mining methods . This section reviews surface mining methods and ...

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Underground mining methods - SlideShare

Underground mining methods: These are the methods/techniques employed when the depth of the deposit,the stripping ratio of the overburden to ore,or both becomes excessive to surface exploitation. Choice of an underground mining method is often closely related to the Geology of the deposit and degree of ground support necessary to make the ...

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Selection Of Surface Mining Method

Equipment Selection for Surface Mining: A Review - Public Wiki. 24 Nov 2010 ... Key words: Equipment Selection, Surface Mining, Shovel-Truck Productivity, Mining Method Selection,. Multi-Commodity Network Flow. Read more

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Lesson 7.2: Mechanical Surface Mining Methods ...

Lesson 7.2: Mechanical Surface Mining Methods - Introduction & Open Pit Mining. Earlier in the course, we discussed the factors that go into the selection of a mining method, and we listed the major mining methods. Why can't we use a single method to extract all minerals located near the surface? Consider the following examples:

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Proposal of Criteria for Selection of Dewatering Methods ...

cost. If the situation doesn't obviously prejudge the selection of certain method the multivariant study taking under consideration all proposed criteria is recommended. The presented proposal is based on 40 years experience gained in about 100 surface mining

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A Brief Introduction to the Types of Surface Mining Methods

These surface mining methods are considered to be more efficient and economical in extracting minerals as compared to most methods of underground mining. In fact, it can extract almost 90% of ore from a deposit. For this reason, surface mining is the most widely used method in North America.

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Equipment Selection for Surface Mining: A Review

A surface mine contains pits with mineral endowed rock (or ore). We extract ore that lies within the upper layer of the earth, from surface mines (Fricke, 2006) . This ore can include metals such as iron, copper, coal and gold. There are several methods of surface mining, including open-pit, stripping, dredging and mountain-top removal.

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Mining method selection by multiple criteria decision ...

approach for mining method selection. The Nicholas methodology follows a numerical approach to rate different mining methods based on the rankings of specific input parameters. A numerical rating for each mining method is arrived at by summing these rankings. The higher the rating, the more suitable the mining method. One of the problems of

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Alabama Surface Mining Commission TECHNICAL MANUAL …

methods have been found to be inaccurate and their results hard to reproduce. One method that is considered accurate and reproducible is the point-frequency method. This is the method used by the Office of Surface Mining and by the Alabama Surface Min ing Commission. Three ways to apply the point-frequency method will be described.

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Mining methods and method selection | SpringerLink

A schematic layout of an underground mine is shown in Figure 12.1. Three types of excavations employed in the process are recognised in the figure. These are the ore sources, or stopes, the stope access and service openings, or stope development, and the permanent access and service openings. Irrespective of the method used to mine an orebody ...

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Types of Mining Methods | Sell Side Handbook

Mar 11, 2018· Some variations of the room-and-pillar mining method include post room-and-pillar mining and step room-and-pillar mining. Post room-and-pillar mining is a combination of room-and-pillar mining and cut-and-fill stoping mining, whereas step room-and-pillar mining is a variation of room-and-pillar mining in which the footwall of an inclined ore body is adapted for use of trackless equipment.

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Coal mining - Choosing a mining method | Britannica

Choosing a mining method. The various methods of mining a coal seam can be classified under two headings, surface mining and underground mining. Surface and underground coal mining are broad activities that incorporate numerous variations in equipment and methods, and the choice of which method to use in extracting a coal seam depends on many technological, economic, and social factors.

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Surface Mine Planning and Mining Methods

Objectives: On completion of this subject, the students should have developed the skills and knowledge to understand the fundamentals of surface mine planning, mining method selection, optimisation, scheduling and reporting. Assessment: • Formally supervised written examination – 2 x 2 hours 20% each (end of semester).

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Surface mining methods - an overview - Basic Mining Techniques

Jul 19, 2017· 1. Overview. Surface mining involves the extraction of mineral commodity on the earth's surface and in the open air. Surface mines can be fully mechanized, partly mechanized, or labour intensive. Large scale operations with high production rates are normally fully mechanized while small scale operations as with alluvial and artisanal mining ...

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Topic 5: Mining Methods-Part I-Surface mining

Nov 02, 2011· Topic 5: Mining Methods-Part I-Surface mining 1. Topic 5: Mining Methods Part I-Surface mining Hassan Z. Harraz [email protected] 2010- 2011 Prof. Dr. H.Z. Harraz Presentation This material is intended for use in lectures, presentations and as handouts to students, and is provided in Power point format so as to allow customization for the individual needs of course …

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Surface mining methods - oregeometry simplified.pdf ...

Geological terms Dip and Strike on Geologic Maps. Dip and Strike on Geologic Maps. DIP is the acute angle that a rock surface makes with a horizontal plane. STRIKE is the direction of the line formed by the intersection of a rock surface with a horizontal plane. The sheet, the most common shape in which sedimentary deposits occur, is a tabular body separated from other rocks by bedding planes.

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Selection of overburden surface mining method in West ...

Selection of overburden surface mining method 307 123. material and it specifically addresses mining equipment such as electric and hydraulic shovels, and front-end wheel loaders. Module IV focuses on the SM, while Module V is developed to conduct comparative analyses among all

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Mining method selection and transition depth determination ...

Mining method selection ;transition depth open-pit underground combined mining. 1. Introduction . Naturally, ore bodies come in every imaginable geometric shape. While surface hard rock mines apply the open-pit method to almost any ore configuration, a large number of underground mining methods have been developed primarily in response to the

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Surface Mining Technology: Progress and Prospects ...

Jan 01, 2012· Abstract. Surface mining methods dominate the world production of minerals. Currently, almost all non-metallic minerals [more than 95%], most metallic minerals [more than 90%] and a large fraction of coal [more than 60 percent] are mined by surface methods. Of the over 30 billion tonnes of ore and waste materials that are mined each year ...

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Selection of the optimal technology for surface mining by ...

The selection of optimal technology for surface mining of mineral deposits is a standard decision-making problem. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of the combined AHP and ELECTRE methods in selecting the optimal technology using the open pit coal mine "Ugljevik East" (Ugljevik Istok) as an example. In order to

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Selection of overburden surface mining method in West ...

Selection of overburden surface mining method in West ia by analytical hierarchy process, International Journal of Coal Science & Technology, 2014, pp. 306-314, Volume 1, Issue 3, DOI: 10.1007/s40789-014-0019-0

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Effective factors investigation in choice between surface ...

SURFACE MINING METHODS A surface mine is an open-air excavation for removing minerals. Surface mining can be employed to extract metallic or nonmetallic mineral from any near-surface deposit in any rock type. Near-surface generally implies deposit less than 500 ft. the size of the deposit may range from a few tons to more than 100 million tons.

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CHAPTER 11 Mining Technology

the mining technologies currently in use on Federal leases and the potential for commer-cial mining technologies to extract Federal coal reserves from deep underground seams. The chapter discusses: three surface mining techniques that are used in the West: 1) area strip, 2) open pit, and 3) terrace pit; two methods of underground mining in

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12. Mining methods and method selection

12.5 Mining method selection-The mining principles and methods have evolved to meet the geomechanical and operational problems of various cases.-Final choice of mining method will reflect both the engineering properties of the orebody and its setting, and the engineering attributes of the various methods such as mining scale, production rate ...

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(PDF) SURFACE MINING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT | …

Surface Mining Methods After a mineral deposit has been discovered, delineated, and evaluated, the most appropriate mining method is selected based on technical, economic, and environmentally accountable considerations. The first step in selecting the most appropriate mining method is to compare the economic efficiency of extraction of the ...

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1.1 PHASES OF A MINING PROJECT - ELAW

The first way in which proposed mining projects differ is the proposed method of moving or excavating the overburden. What follows are brief descriptions of the most common methods. 1.1.3.1 Open-pit mining Open-pit mining is a type of strip mining in which …

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Intech-Surface Coal Mining Methods in Australia

Mining Methods 6 Fig. 3. Overall mining sequence of a typical surface coal mine in Australia (after Westcott et al., 2009). 2.1 Dragline method Dragline is the predominant mach ine which is used to remove the overburden and expose the coal when the deposit s characteristics match the draglines physical capabilities. Once

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Methods for Equipments Selection in Surface Mining; review

mining equipments selection. This system is able to involve the expert knowledge in primary and secondary selection of equipment for surface coal mines [3]. In 1990, another expert system, in order to classify equipment, was planned in the open pit coal mine of Britain with the help of fuzzy logic.

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The Benefits of Using Precision Surface Mining Methods

Nov 10, 2020· Employing precision surface mining at African bauxite mine. After visiting a surface mine in Australia to learn about precision mining methods and getting their first look at the Vermeer T1255 Terrain Leveler, Société Minière de Boké mining company (SMB) knew what they needed to do with the Boké Mine in Guinea, Africa.

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selection of surface mining method

Selection of overburden surface mining method in . The broad objective of this research was to improve current surface mining practices and reduce negative environmental impact of overburden removal in West ia (WV).

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APPLICATION OF RIPPER-DOZER COMBINATION IN …

The share of opencast methods has gone upto 70% of world's total mineral production. The surface mining of hard rocks and ore demands drilling and blasting. But these techniques have many adverse effects on environment. So today's eco-conscious world demands introduction of improved technology for blast free, safe and eco-friendly mining.

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Equipment Selection for Surface Mining: A Review ...

One of the challenging problems for surface mining operation optimization is choosing the optimal truck and loader fleet. We refer to this problem as the equipment selection problem ESP. In this paper, we describe the ESP in the context of surface mining and discuss related problems and applications.

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Factors influencing mining method selection ...

Underground mining methods are the focus of this article. The selection of a mining method for an ore deposit is based on many factors that are driven by the economics and profitability of the mine for a company. These include the following: Ore grade and recovery. Cost of infrastructure.

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Selection of overburden surface mining method in West ...

Sep 20, 2014· 10%· The optimal mining method has the highest priority percentage. The results of these adjustments for the cost criteria can be seen in Table 8. Results show that the optimal mining method selection continues to be the SM mining method until the of cost priority percentage is increased by approximately 20 %.

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Types of Underground Mining Method Comparison

Mar 16, 2017· In any discussion of Methods of Underground Mining Comparison, one is repeatedly confronted with the difficulty of dealing with so many variable conditions. It is not an exact science and in the choice of a method each varying factor has a certain weight, which, in …

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Chapter 7: Surface Mining

• select a mining method that is the most economic given the physical characteristics of the orebody and rate at which the ore is to be mined • decide if the project is either economically viable or could be viable under a given set of conditions. Selection of the most economically viable mining method requires an evaluation of the capital and

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